• Free Amino Acid Profiles of Fermented Soybean Products Prepared by Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus

    Anittaya Kanghae;Prapassorn Damrongkoo;Eungwanichayapant;Ekachai Chukeatirote;

    Fermented soybean is one of the traditional foods widely consumed in many Asian countries. Most products(i.e., Natto, Jang, Kinema and Thua nao) are produced mainly by the bacterial activity. This study was performed as a part of the program to improve the soybean fermentation, and a use of the co-culture between the bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus was selected. For fermentation, the raw soybeans were washed, sterilized by autoclaving, and inoculated with a mixed microbial starter culture of B. subtilis(102 CFU · g~(-1)) and R. oligosporus(102 conidia · g~(-1)). The Free Amino Acid(FAA) contents were then investigated by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC). The results showed that the amounts of FAAs and essential amino acids in the fermented soybean samples were found at significantly higher concentration when compared to those of the cooked, non-fermented soybean samples(p<0.05). These data indicated that an involvement of microbial fermentation helped to accelerate an increase of FAA. The food compositional data were useful as a reference(and/or guidance) for the nutritional value, when compared to other fermented soybeans and related products.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 1-6页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 498K]
    [下载次数:53 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:32 ]
  • Effects of Planting Methods on Levels of Common Pesticides and Heavy Metals in Dendrobium officinale

    Zheng Xiao-long;Zhou Jing-qing;Hu Xian-qiao;Zhu Zhi-wei;Zhang Lin-ping;

    The levels of common pesticides and heavy metals in Dendrobium officinale grown from 2012 to 2014 were measured, and three planting methods were used in 2014. The quality of plant husbandry improved during the study period. Thirteen types of pesticides were detected in D. officinale grown in 2014 and antimicrobials, including carbendazim, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin, were evident in 61.53% of plants. These three pesticides constituted 72.33% of all the antimicrobials detected. Planting methods affected the levels of pesticides and heavy metals. Trellising in plastic sheds was optimal, being associated with the lowest amounts of both pesticides and heavy metals. Both cadmium(Cd) and lead(Pb) levels were high in treed plants, whereas Cr, As and Cu levels were the highest in potted plants.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 7-13页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 774K]
    [下载次数:31 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:56 ]
  • Analysis of Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Cultivated Land of Nehe City

    Du Guo-ming;Yuan Rui;Zhao Jing-bo;Luo Yin-song;

    This study aimed at gaining the cultivated land quality and the situation of soil pollution, taking Nehe City in Heilongjiang Province as an example, used ordinary Kriging interpolation of geostatistics, investigated the content and spatial distribution of eight kinds of heavy metal elements(namely Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Hg and As) in farming land soil, then analyzed the distinction and potential source of these heavy metal elements. The result showed that(1) all these elements had a certain amount of accumulation compared with those in the background of Heilongjiang Province, among which the accumulated levels of Cu and As were the highest.(2) Through statistic analyses, it showed that the spatial autocorrelation degrees of these four elements(namely Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn) were higher.(3) The pollution of Cd and Cu was relatively severe.(4) The spatial distribution features of these eight kinds of heavy metal elements were different, and the soil parent material and the human activity played double roles in the content distribution of heavy metal elements in farming land soil.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 14-22页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 1334K]
    [下载次数:41 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:1 ] |[阅读次数:28 ]
  • Expression of Inflammatory Factors in Bovine Reproductive Tract During Follicular and Luteal Phases

    Lin Xu;Tian Ya-guang;Zheng Peng;Huang He;

    In order to improve reproduvtive efficieny and understand reproduvtive defense mechanism, the oviduct, uterine horn and uterine body of bovine were used to detect the changes of inflammatory factors and the relationship between estrogen and progesterone receptor protein during estrous cycle by real-time PCR and Elisa method. The results showed that interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), interleukin-1α(IL-1α) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) were expressed in cow oviduct, uterine horn and uterine body. In the follicular phase and the luteal phase, m RNA expression of five inflammatory factors in the uterine horn and uterine body was higher than that in the oviduct. In the follicular phase, IL-10 was highly expressed in the uterine horn and uterine body, IL-4 was highly expressed in the uterine horn, uterine body and oviduct. Additionally, in the luteal phase, IL-6 and IL-1β were highly expressed in the uterine horn, uterine body and oviduct, and the highest expression of IL-1β was observed in the uterine horn. The levels of Estrogen Receptor(ERα) protein in the oviduct, uterine horn and uterine body significantly increased in the follicular phase. The levels of Progesterone Receptor(PR) protein in the same portions of the reproductive tract in the luteal phase were significantly higher than those in the follicular phase. IL-4 and IL-10 in the cow reproductive tract might play a major role in the follicular phase, while IL-6 and IL-1β might play a major role in the luteal phase. The expression of five inflammatory factors was not directly regulated by ERα and PR.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 23-28页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 394K]
    [下载次数:22 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:25 ]
  • Effects of Quercetin on Performance and Lipid Metabolism in Laying Hens

    Han Chun-yan;Chaudhry Maria Tabassum;Yao Jia-ying;Wang Mi;Yang Jia-xin;Wang Sheng-nan;Zhou Bo;Li Yao;

    Quercetin has a variety of biological activities. However, its application as a feed additive in poultry production is limited. In this study, the effects of quercetin on performance and lipid metabolism in Hessian laying hens were investigated and the possibility of quercetin to decrease cholesterol in eggs and Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-cholesterol) in laying hens were explored. A total of 240 laying hens at 29-week-old were randomly assigned to four treatments, with six replicates of 10 birds per replicate. The treatments were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g · kg~(-1) quercetin for 8 weeks. Layer performance, lipid concentration in livers, yolks and serum were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that laying rate had a quadratic correlation with the level of quercetin(p=0.056) and was maximized by the supplement level of 0.2 g · kg~(-1) diet. When the level of dietary quercetin increased, feed-egg ratio decreased. Crude fat and the total cholesterol of livers decreased by supplementation of quercetin. The total cholesterols of yolks also decreased and had a quadratic correlation with the levels of quercetin(p=0.019). Insulin increased by supplement of quercetin. In conclusion, quercetin improved the performance and reduced egg yolk cholesterol by affecting serum hormone levels.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 29-36页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 351K]
    [下载次数:16 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:21 ]
  • Effects of Fermentation Compound Herbal Medicine on Production Performance and Immune Function of Weaned Piglets

    Jin San-jun;Gao Peng-hui;Wang Fang-fang;Dong Jia-qi;Wang Chuan-qi;Diao Xin-ping;

    The feed additive was composed of six Chinese Herbal(CH)(including Poria, Astragalus, Cork, Orange peel, Hawthorn and Radix), which were fermented by Lactobacillus and used as a feed additive for piglets basal diet. Similar to group of antibiotic and herbal medicine, fermented herbal medicine was additived to basic diet in four trials with eight replications per trial, determining effect on the growth performance, biochemical and immunological indicators. Compared with the control group, the group of fermented herbal compound had higher Average Daily Gain(ADG), higher content of immune globulin M(IgM) and immune globulin A(Ig A)(p<0.05). There was no significant effect on the indicators of ADG, Average Daily Feed Intake(ADFI) and diarrhea rate(p>0.05) between groups of antibiotic and fermented herbal were observed; however, the concentrations of Total Protein(TP), Growth Hormone(GH), IgG, IgM and IgA significantly increased(p<0.05) compared with the control group.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 37-44页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 340K]
    [下载次数:44 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:1 ] |[阅读次数:21 ]
  • Evaluating Feed Intake of Fishes in Aquaculture Nutrition Experiments with Due Consideration of Mortality and Fish Survival

    Lateef Akinwumi Folorunso;Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe;Augustine Eyiwunmi Falaye;Akeem Babatunde Dauda;Emmanuel Kolawole Ajani;

    Mortality is normal and natural in aquaculture experiments. However, it becomes a problem when measuring feed intake as a component of nutrient utilization parameters such as: feed conversion ratio, feed conversion efficiency, apparent net protein utilization, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value. In order to accurately evaluate feed intake with due consideration of mortality encountered, a formulae was developed using empirical data obtained from an experiement that had mortality. The formulae Fwas: total feed consumed by numbers of survived fishes=DL∑_(i=1)~n(F_i/N_i)N. Where, D=Numbers of days fishes were fed within each period ibefore it was adjusted(e.g fortnight), it was constant throught period of experiment; F=Uantity of feed fed per day for a fortnight before the quantity was adjusted, it changed every fortnight; L=Numbers of living fishes at the end of experimental period; N=Numbers of fishes at each weighing period, it might change every fortnight or might be constant if no mortality occurred; while n=Numbers of times fishes were weighed and quantity of feed was adjusted but this did not include the final weighing at the termination of experiment. However, if the fishes were weighed weekly, then D=6.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 45-50页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 350K]
    [下载次数:29 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:30 ]
  • Effects of Matrine on Bovine Papilloma Virus-infected C127 Cells

    Jiang Xiao-wen;Liu Lin;Feng Xin-xin;Liu Yan-yan;Chen Xue-ying;Feng Guo-feng;Song Jian-chen;Li Yan-hua;Yu Wen-hui;

    The aim of this study was to select drugs for prevention and treatment of bovine papilloma in vitro, using bovine papilloma virus(BPV-2) infected mouse mammary epithelial(C127) cell lines as the infectious cell model system. C127 cell shapes changed with BPV infection observed under light microscopy. C127 cell shapes changed with BPV infection observed under light microscopy. PCR was used to confirm BPV infected C127 cells. mR NA levels of matrine to BPV-2 infected C127 cells were detected by RT-PCR. Apoptosis of BPV-infected C127 cells treated with matrine was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results showed that 80 μg· mL~(-1) matrine had a direct virucidal and intervention effect of BPV-2. Matrine inhibited the proliferation of BPV-infected cells. Therefore, matrine might be regarded as a therapeutic drug candidate for BPV induced bovine papilloma disease treatment in future.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 51-58页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 649K]
    [下载次数:25 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:1 ] |[阅读次数:20 ]
  • Changes of Biomarkers in Synovial Fluid in Equine OA Model

    Li Xin-ran;Wang Guan-ying;Jiang Ren-li;Wang Hao;Gao Li;

    The pathogenesis of equine Osteoarthritis(OA) is more complex, and the disease in the early stage is not easy to be found, therefore, the early diagnosis and treatment are very important. Based on this, this experiment established OA model induced by equine, aimed to study the changes of contents of Matrix Metalloproteinases-3(MMP-3), Matrix Metalloproteinases-13(MMP-13), Aggrecanase(ADAMTS-5), Hyaluronic Acid(HA) and Osteocalcin(OCN) in synovial fluid, and establish rapid diagnostic technique for the equine OA. Thirteen Mongolian equines were used in these induction studies. Equines were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group contained eight equines and the control group contained five equines. The experimental group was to build the equine osteoarthritis model. The induction was done through Intra-articular(IA) injection of 2 m L Amphotericin-B in equines' left carpal joints. The equine of the control group was injected into 2 m L physiological saline in equines' left carpal joints. Synovial fluid was collected every week until the 9th week. The contents of MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, HA and OCN in synovial fluid were evaluated by using ELISA kits. Equine OA model, compared with the control group, starting from the 1st to the 2nd week after induction model, the content of MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, HA and OCN tended to increase, but there was no significant increase, from the 2nd to the 3rd week they significantly increased(p<0.05) and kept increasing trend until the 9th week. In OA model, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, HA and OCN showed a rising trend in joint fluid, which would accelerate the cartilage, subchondral bone degradation and metabolism of these proteases increased, and ADAMTS-5 and HA in the early stage increased significantly.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 59-65页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 377K]
    [下载次数:9 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:62 ]
  • A Novel and Reliable Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Lactoperoxidase Activity in Raw Milk

    Jiang Zhan-mei;Che Hong-xia;Yang Nan;Yuan Xiang-ying;Li Xue-yan;Zhang Xin-liu;

    With 3, 3'5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine(TMB) as the detection substrate, a reliable and highly selective method was established and optimized for the determination of Lactoperoxidase(LP) activity in raw milk. The method was based on the enzymatic reaction principle, where hydrogen peroxide oxidated TMB in the presence of LP. The optimized conditions of this assay system were obtained, consisting of 20 mmol · L~(-1) TMB solution, 0.6 mmol · L~(-1) hydrogen peroxide and 0.1 mol · L~(-1) Citric Acid(CA)/0.2 mol · L~(-1) disodium hydrogen phosphate(Na P) buffer(pH 4.8). TMB detection method was applied to the analysis of LP in milk samples with a practical working concentration range from 2 to 14 mg · L~(-1). The intra-and inter-batch variation coefficients were all below 5%, indicating a good repeatability. Confirmation test between TMB method and 2, 2-azinobi(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) diammonium salt(ABTS) method was carried out, and the results of TMB assay were in accordance with that of ABTS method.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 66-73页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 399K]
    [下载次数:20 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:1 ] |[阅读次数:35 ]
  • Optimization of Freeze-drying Protective Agents for Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0391 by Response Surface Methodology

    Jia Fang-fang;Han Bing;Meng Xiang-chen;Zhang Lu-ji;Zhou Jin-yu;

    In this study, the Single Factor Test(SFT) was used to optimize the pre-freezing conditions of L. plantarum KLDS1.0391(KLDS1.0391). Further, the Freeze-Drying Protective Agents(FDPA) of KLDS1.0391 was optimized by Response Surface Methodology(RSM). The optimum pretreatment conditions were as the follows: initial concentration of KLDS1.0391 was 1011 CFU · m L~(-1) and KLDS1.0391 was pre-freezed at –80℃ for 8 h to achieve the survival rate of 46.21%. The main components of FDPA were skim milk, sucrose, sodium glutamate and Tween-80. And the influence of four factors on the survival rate of KLDS1.0391 in freeze-drying was in order as the follows: skim milk>sucrose>Tween-80>sodium glutamate. The optimal FDPA composition was skim milk 11.3%, sucrose 9.8%, sodium glutamate 5.1% and Tween-80 0.2%. Under the above conditions, the survival rate of the cells was 82.98%. Comparing the predicted values, the relative error was 0.37% and the difference was not significant, which indicated that the established model could effectively reflect the actual protection of FDPA to KLDS1.0391.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 74-80页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 651K]
    [下载次数:30 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:22 ]
  • A Mathematical Model for Juice Extraction from Chopped Sweet Sorghum

    Sun Xiao-zheng;Yamana Nobuki;

    Juice extraction from chopped sweet sorghum is an example of flow through porous media. Darcy's law is often used to express this type of phenomenon. However, using Darcy's law to construct a mathematical model to predict juice extraction from chopped sweet sorghum is difficult, because the volume of the porous media changes during the pressing operations. A mathematical model was developed from fundamental analysis to predict the juice extraction ratio of chopped sweet sorghum, and experiments were conducted to verify the model. An experimental piston-cylinder assembly was developed to conduct the validation experiments. The parameters in the developed model were estimated by using non-linear regression analysis from the experimental data. Plots of the mathematical model agreed well with experimental data. R~2(coefficient of determination) values for all the regressions studied were higher than 0.99. Results showed that the juice extraction ratio of chopped sweet sorghum approached an asymptote with a maximum value that depended on the physical form of the sample. The model could help in understanding the mechanics of juice extraction from chopped sweet sorghum.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 81-88页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 548K]
    [下载次数:10 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:30 ]
  • Influencing Factors of Rural Bank Development in China

    Hu Xin-rui;Wang Ji-heng;

    As a new mode to offer finance support in rural areas, the establishment of rural banks provide not only service and support for the agricultural development and rural economy, but also solutions to the issue of long-standing fund shortage and poverty in China. However, there are still a lot of problems that restrict the development of rural banks, such as unreasonable property right, unsound system of management as well as rural social credit, lacking of high-quality employees, innovation, policy support, supervision system, social awareness. Therefore, the analytic hierarchy process was employed in the current study with the aim of figuring out the essential factors which restricted the development of rural banks from two aspects of internal factors and external factors, furthermore, relevant suggestions were put forward.

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 89-96页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 327K]
    [下载次数:63 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:39 ]
  • Journal of Northeast Agricultural University(English Edition) Instruction to Authors

    <正>Aims and Scope Journal of Northeast Agricultural University(English Edition)is a comprehensive academic journal on agricultural sciences sponsored by Northeast Agricultural University and distributed worldwide.It is a peer reviewed journal published quarterly and mainly publishes review and research articles that reflect the latest achievements on

    2017年02期 v.24;No.67 97页 [查看摘要][在线阅读][下载 221K]
    [下载次数:8 ] |[网刊下载次数:0 ] |[引用频次:0 ] |[阅读次数:19 ]
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